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Around 4 million years ago, a cataclysmic earthquake in the region of Gibraltar split the land between the continents of Europe and Africa. This epochal geological event resulted in the creation of the largest waterfall in the history of the Earth. It allowed the Atlantic Ocean to tumble into a previously barren, landlocked basin and form the sea we now know as the Mediterranean.

With over 6,000 miles of coastline surrounding a relatively tranquil sea, with numerous natural harbours and hundreds of islands to break long sea voyages, the Mediterranean provided the ideal environment for the evolution of complex patterns of trade, migration and the communication of ideas. These conditions led to an unparalleled explosion of human creativity and the birth of the great civilisations of antiquity.


Ancient Greece

The Greeks were responsible for one of the most brilliant and inspiring epochs in human history. They revolutionised every aspect of civilised life from art, literature and architecture to politics, philosophy and mathematics. Their technological and scientific achievements were no less remarkable (among other Greek innovations were the first maps, gear technology, the screw, plumbing, and even the vending machine).

Never a unified nation, it comprised a number of polis or city-states that were often at war with each other. The most important of the city-states was Athens. It was here in the 5th-century BC that the genius and creativity of the ancient Greek world shone with unprecedented brilliance. This was the time of the great statesman Pericles who organised the construction of the Acropolis, of the dramatists Aeschylus, Sophocles and Euripedes and, of course, of the philosopher Socrates. It was truly the “Golden Age”.


Mare Nostrum and the Rise of Rome

Disciplined, organised and bellicose, in 510BC the Romans defeated their Etruscan overlords and never looked back. Over the following centuries, Roman military supremacy in the Mediterranean would become total, from Syria and Egypt in the East to France and Spain in the West. The great empires of Greece and Carthage would be swallowed up, and, in a customary display of arrogance, the Romans would christen the Middle Sea “Mare Nostrum” – Our Sea.

As builders they were masters: their roads were conceived on a scale previously unimaginable in the ancient world; and their skills as engineers (they were the first people to use the arch) remarkable. From the end of the Second Punic War in 201BC until the founding of the new imperial capital at Constantinople in 330AD by the first Christian Emperor, Constantine the Great, Rome was the centre of the known world.


Byzantium and Beyond

Constantine the Great’s capital Constantinople was founded on the site of the ancient Greek city of Byzantium. It was to last 1,123 years, for several centuries of which it was the most powerful military, economic and cultural force in the Mediterranean. During this time, the Empire was a bulwark of Christianity against the forces of Islam. It provided a staging post for the Crusaders heading off to the Holy Land and it has left behind some of the most beautiful and architecturally exciting buildings in the world.


The Coming of the Barbarians

The emergence of the "barbarian kingdoms" in the 5th-century and the rise of Islam in the 7th-century meant that the medieval Mediterranean world would not be nearly as cohesive as its ancient counterpart. Amidst this chaotic background of plagues, wars and crusades emerged two remarkable cultures: the Norman Kingdom of Sicily and the Venetian Empire.


The Rise of Venice

The Venetian Republic existed for over a millennium, from the late 7th-century AD until 1797. It is often referred to as La Serenissima, the Most Serene Republic. Over the years the Venetians acquired an overseas empire that was primarily concerned with protecting and developing their commercial interests. They were a superpower motivated by the pursuit of profit.

The Venetian Empire is the last great power that concerns us here, but during the Voyages to Antiquity cruises there will be several reminders of later events that have shaped the history of the Middle Sea: the tragedy of Gallipoli in World War I; the construction of the Suez Canal; and the transformation of so much of the coast by tourism. Despite all these upheavals, however, the world of the ancient civilisations endures and, as you will discover on your journey, is still a source of inspiration and wonder.