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Robert Bartlett is Bishop Wardlaw Professor of Medieval History at the University of St Andrews in Scotland and a Fellow of the British Academy. He received his university education at Cambridge, Oxford and Princeton, taught earlier at the universities of Edinburgh and Chicago and has held fellowships in America, Germany and Israel. His books include 'The Making of Europe: Conquest, Colonization and Cultural Change 950-1350', which won the Wolfson Literary Prize for History and has been translated into German, Estonian, Polish, Japanese, Spanish and Russian; 'England under the Norman and Angevin Kings 1075-1225; The Medieval World Complete', a lavishly illustrated introduction to the Middle Ages; and, most recently, 'Why Can the Dead Do Such Great Things?: Saints and Worshippers from the Martyrs to the Reformation' (Princeton University Press, 2013).
Professor Bartlett has lectured widely, from New Zealand to Chile, from Japan to California, and has written and presented three television series for the BBC, “Inside the Medieval Mind” (2008), “The Normans” (2010), which took him to Sicily, Istanbul and Jerusalem, and “The Plantagenets” (2014).
Martin Bell is a former British war correspondent, independent politician and currently a UN ambassador. During his 30-year career, he has reported from 102 countries and covered 18 conflicts, having made his name in Vietnam in the 1960s. He was the BBC's chief Washington correspondent during the Reagan Presidency.
From 1992 to 1995 he was BBC TV's principal reporter covering the Bosnian war, in which he was wounded. He entered the House of Commons in 1997 as the first elected Independent since 1951. He campaigned against corruption and was described as 'a fully paid-up member of the awkward squad'.
He is now a UNICEF Ambassador and an author of six books about war and politics, most recently a collection of light and dark verse, 'For Whom the Bell Tolls'. His book on the Bosnian war, 'In Harm's Way', was republished in April 2012.
Ian Brown is a research professor in history at the School of Oriental and African Studies in London. He has published extensively on the modern history of South East Asia, and notably on Burma. His most recent book, Burma's economy in the twentieth century, was published by Cambridge University Press in late 2013.
His wife, Rajeswary Ampalavanar, originally from Malaysia, is also a historian of South East Asia.
Major General Stephen Carr-Smith spent 33 years in the Army. During 1962-1982, he served 10 years in Germany at the height of the Cold War. From 1988-1995 he was serving in NATO, most of which was spent helping develop the “New NATO” after the demise of the Warsaw Pact and the USSR. His last appointment was as the Deputy Director General of the NATO Communications Agency in Brussels.
Upon leaving the Army in 1995 - he worked for a company providing security and mine clearance services in remote and hostile countries and was the Senior Military Advisor to an operational analysis company owned by British Aerospace.
Between 1996 and 2006 he was the Honorary Colonel of the First Aid Nursing Yeomanry – an all women, uniformed volunteer body that has supported the British Army for 100 years. He is currently a Vice President. Furthermore, from 2003 to 2013 he was the President of the Stragglers of Asia Cricket Club, with its origins in the Punjab in the 1920s – and, accompanied by his wife, he led tours to Sri Lanka in 2004 and to India in 2007.
Since 2007 he has been a speaker with a variety of cruise lines – and has cruised several times in the Far East and around the Indian sub-continent – including Singapore, Malaysia, Burma, Sri Lanka and India. Whilst cruising with Voyages to Antiquity, Mr Carr-Smith will hold talks on World War II in the Pacific and Southeast Asia, and the long history of the British Empire in India.
Laurence was born in London in 1939, educated at a Grammar School in Brighton, and studied Physics at Brighton Technical College. He then changed course, won a scholarship to the Bristol Old Vic Theatre School and trained as an actor. He went to Nottingham Playhouse where he acted with many great actors and actresses, including Judy Dench; he was at the Edinburgh Festival and in the West End as well as many theatres up and down the country. He was in television for many years, and in the film Far from the Madding Crowd.
In 1975 he enrolled at Reading University to read Classics and gained first class honours. He went on to University College London to write a PhD thesis on the theme of Athenian politics in the fifth century BC. This was published in 1986 by Oxford University Press under the title The Quiet Athenian.
He began working as a tour guide both in English and Italian (which he speaks fluently due to a lifelong love of opera) and has travelled in many countries, including the US where for several years he was a guide through the western states, as well as the old Soviet Union, China and many European countries. He knows France and Italy well and has toured through them many times over a twenty year period.
Since 2009 he has lectured on cruise ships on aspects of ancient history, and has a particular knowledge of Sicily having guided through it many times. The southern coast of Italy and Sicily has a particular fascination for Laurence as it is the setting for Homer’s Odyssey.
Peter Cattermole graduated in geology at the University College of Wales, Aberystwyth. He taught petrology, planetary geology and volcanology at both the Universities of Wales and Sheffield and conducted volcanological and petrological research in several countries, including Wales, Indonesia and Europe. While in Indonesia he studied volcanic activity in central Java, Bali and Lombok. He was a Principal Investigator with NASA’s Planetary Geology and Physics Program, working at both the Universities of Arizona and Sheffield, studying the volcanoes of Mars and Venus.
He has published many books and academic papers in the fields of both geology and astronomy and has appeared regularly on BBC TV’s “Sky at Night” programme when such topics as the Moon and planets were under the spotlight. Before entering academia he spent time as a draftsman, a climbing instructor, a museum curator and a forester. He also had a short spell teaching at Gordonstoun School.
Since retiring from academia he ran for many years a portfolio of specialist geological tours around the world, given many lectures and, having had a lifelong interest in astronomy, has organised and led numerous trips to witness total eclipses of the Sun. He continues to have a close interest in the volcanoes of Sicily and the Aeolian Isles and especially enjoys explaining modern geological ideas on cruise ships. He and his wife spend several months of every year in their finca on the island of La Gomera, naturally, an extinct volcano.
Robin Cormack is an art historian who works on Mediterranean art, particularly from Antiquity and Byzantium, but also from the Renaissance. He teaches in the Classics Faculty, University of Cambridge, and is giving lectures in 2014 in the National Gallery of Art, Washington D.C. and at the Universities of California at Los Angeles and Santa Barbara. Robin has published books on Byzantine Art, and co-curated the recent Royal Academy exhibition, Byzantium 330-1453.
He has a special side-interest in British architects who worked in Khartoum and New Delhi, and since he has always made it an aim never to write or lecture about monuments and sites unless he has visited them and studied them at first hand, travel is one of the things he does most often. Fortunately his wife, Professor Mary Beard, agrees with this aim, and travels too (and not just on twitter). So do his children who are both students working in Africa, and who spend time in Cairo and South Sudan. He is currently trying to learn to play the harpsichord, but that does not travel with him.
Francis Cornish, formerly a diplomat, has spent many years in South East Asia and the Far East, working in Malaysia, Indonesia, Brunei (as High Commissioner) and Hong Kong (where he was Senior Trade Commissioner until the handover to China in 1997 and then was the first Consul-General there).
In between he worked in Bonn, Washington, Israel (as Ambassador) and at home. In London his posts included deputy Private Secretary to The Prince of Wales and Spokesman to the Foreign Secretary (Douglas Hurd).
When he left the Foreign Office he became Chairman of South West Tourism, covering the area from Gloucestershire to Cornwall for the fourth biggest industry in Britain.
Kevin M. Crotty, the Childress Professor Foreign Languages at Washington and Lee, chairs the Classics Department, and teaches occasionally in the Washington and Lee School of Law. He did his undergraduate work at Columbia University, where he graduated summa cum laude. He received in his Ph D in Classics from Yale, where he taught for several years in the Classics Department. He also holds a law degree from the Harvard School of Law, and practiced law for many years in the New York office of Hughes, Hubbard and Reed. He has taught at Washington and Lee since 1999, where he lectures on such topics as Myth, Ancient Epic, Drama, Greek Litigation and Political Theory. He has travelled in Greece several times, and has led student groups there. He reads Latin and Greek, in addition to French, German and Italian. He has been nominated for Virginia’s prestigious Outstanding Teacher Award.
He has published several scholarly works on ancient Greek poetry and philosophy, as well as contemporary legal theory. In 2002, he was nominated for a Grammy Award for his children’s CD, DinoSongs: Poems To Celebrate a T-Rex Named Sue, as performed by the actress Susan Sarandon. He also wrote, under the pseudonym Oswaldo Spence, the stories for the computer game Voyage Down the Nile, sponsored by the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York. His current scholarly interests include the Greek philosopher Plato and ancient myth.
Gregory Dowling graduated in English literature at the University of Oxford in 1978. Since 1979 he has lived in Italy. He has taught in Naples, Siena, Verona and, since 1981, in Venice. He is now Associate Professor of American Literature at Ca’ Foscari University of Venice. His academic publications include a book on American narrative poetry, a book on Byron’s Venice, a co-edited anthology of American poetry about Venice and numerous articles on British and American literature. He has written the sightseeing pages of the Time Out Guide to Venice.
He is non-fiction editor for the journal Able Muse Review and is responsible for the section on British poetry of the Italian poetry journal Semicerchio. He has translated widely from the Italian. He has also published four thrillers set in England and Italy and is currently writing a crime-novel set in eighteenth-century Venice.
In his lecture "Venice Today: City of Culture or Mass-Tourism?", Gregory will present the problems facing this beautiful but fragile city, still medieval in its structures and even its transport system, in the age of mass tourism.
Hugh Ellwood was educated in the classics and went to university in Rome to study philosophy. It was here that art and history became a reality and after four years he returned to Manchester to study architecture. After graduation, he became a member of the Royal Institute of British Architects. He pursued a career as an architect with Building Design Partnership, the largest multi-discipline design organisation in the UK. For 21 years he was a partner in the practice, working on housing, school and hospital projects such as the Queens Medical Centre in Nottingham and the New General Infirmary at Leeds.
For some years Hugh was an external examiner in Architecture at the University of Manchester as well as a visiting lecturer in the history of art and architecture at the University of Central Lancashire. He has also lectured extensively to various societies and organisations on art and architecture and is a NADFAS (National Association of Decorative & Fine Arts Societies) accredited lecturer.
During the 1980s he began to sketch with watercolour as a complement to the pursuit of architecture. He prefers to work in watercolour, ink, pencil and pastel. His subjects are mainly buildings, the landscape and the relationship between the two. He prefers to work outdoors, rather than in the studio.
During the year he spends at least three months with his wife in Switzerland and Italy as well as visiting other places of interest abroad to study, photograph and sketch. The areas of the Italian lakes, Rome and Venice are particular favourites.
Katharine Eustace has degrees in History from the University of St Andrews, and the History of Art from the Courtauld Institute of Art, and is a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries of London. After training at the Victoria and Albert Museum, she worked with outstanding collections of art at Bristol City Museum and Art Gallery, the Ashmolean Museum of Art and Archaeology, Oxford, and the National Portrait Gallery, London, where she was Curator for the Twentieth Century Collections from 2001 to 2004. She was the founder-curator of the Mead Gallery at the University of Warwick from 1982 to 1992. She has been Editor of the Sculpture Journal, published by Liverpool University Press since 2004. Her own sculpture interests centre on British sculpture of the eighteenth, nineteenth and twentieth centuries. With the purchase of Canova’s Ideal Head (1816) by the Ashmolean Museum in 1996, she researched and curated Canova: Ideal Heads (1997), described by the art critic of the Telegraph newspaper, Richard Dorment as ‘a pocket Venus of an exhibition.' She will be lecturing on Canova and the Elgin Marbles, and Mestrovic: Folk Art into Modernism.
Robert Gordon is a recently retired British diplomat, whose particular speciality is Burma, where he was British Ambassador from 1995-99. He is currently President of the Britain-Burma Society as well as chairman of Prospect Burma, an educational trust which has sponsored university studies for over 1500 Burmese students. As Head of the FCO’s South East Asia Department from 1999-2003, he was responsible for policy work across all ten ASEAN member states, visiting the area frequently as well as lecturing at Georgetown University, Washington.
Robert Gordon has an MA in Modern Languages from Magdalen College, Oxford. After serving as Ambassador to Vietnam from 2003-07, he has pursued academic and business interests, including lecturing at the University of Strasbourg and France’s Ecole Nationale d’Administration. He was a panellist for Aung San Suu Kyi’s 2011 Reith lecture and for the discussion on Burma’s future at the 2011 Brighton Festival at which Aung San Suu Kyi was guest president. In 2008 he co-chaired an EU conference on aid to Burma after the devastation of Cyclone Nargis. He played a key role in Aung San Suu Kyi’s historic visit to the UK in June 2012 and the following month took part in the first official UK trade mission to Burma for sixteen years.
Pamela Gordon is the current Chair of the Diplomatic Service Families Association (DSFA), a body which promotes the interests of spouses, partners and children of serving British diplomats.
Pamela has a law degree from Leicester University. She joined the Foreign and Commonwealth Office in 1973 and was posted to Havana and Brussels. After marrying Robert Gordon in 1978, she qualified as an English language teacher and taught continuously from 1978–2000 during her husband’s postings to Chile, UK, France, Poland and Burma. While in Burma from 1995-1999, she taught and examined all levels of English as well as undertaking Burma’s only free English language class for 300 students at a local Buddhist monastery. She also developed a passion for Burmese textiles.
In 2000, Pamela rejoined the FCO and worked on Nigeria 2001-2003. During her husband’s subsequent posting to Vietnam, she worked first as a political adviser to the EU Delegation in Hanoi and then as Head of the Hanoi Office of the European Chamber of Commerce. From 2007-2011, she served in the UK Delegation to the Council of Europe in Strasbourg. After working at the FCO head office on Sri Lanka, Bangladesh and the Maldives, Pamela was appointed as DFSA Chair in March 2012.
Edith Hall is Professor of Classics at King’s College London. After a short career in shipping, with Ocean Transport and Trading plc, she took her doctorate at Oxford in 1988. She then held posts at Cambridge, Durham, and Oxford University, where in 1996 she founded the Archive of Performances of Greek & Roman Drama, of which she remains Consultant Director. A cultural historian, she has been deeply involved in the study of the ancient theatre, as well as acting as a Consultant for productions of ancient plays at the Royal Shakespeare Company, the Royal National Theatre, and Shakespeare’s Globe.
Edith loves to share her love of the ancient Greek and Roman worlds with the general public, and appears regularly on BBC Radio. She has given many guest lectures, at the British Museum, the Wellcome Institute, the National Theatre, the Berlin Volkstheater, and at the Universities of Sydney, Stanford, UCLA, USC, UCSB, Colorado, Northwestern, Chicago, Ohio, Harvard, Yale, Princeton, Swarthmore, Maryland, NYU, and Columbia. In April 2014, she has been invited to give the first lectures on Western ancient history ever at Zhejiang University in China.
Her books include studies of the way ancient Greeks saw other cultures (Inventing the Barbarian(1989) and Cultural Responses to the Persian Wars (2007)), and studies of ancient theatre (Greek and Roman Actors (2002), Greek Tragedy (2010). Two of her books study ancient myths of travel: The Return of Ulysses (2008) and Adventures with Iphigenia in Tauris: Euripides’ Black Sea Tragedy(2012). She is particularly interested in the use of ancient ideas in modern political history, for example in Ancient Slavery and Abolition(2011) and India, Greece and Rome(2010). Her Introducing the Ancient Greeks, 1600 BC to 400 ADwill be published by Norton and Bodley Head in 2014.
Edith’s Personal Website: http://www.edithhall.co.uk/
Dr James Hamilton is an authority on the painter J. M. W. Turner and the culture of nineteenth-century Britain and Europe. He has been a popular and entertaining lecturer previously for Voyages to Antiquity, and on this voyage will speak lucidly on Turner and his lifelong passion for Italy and the sea, and on volcanoes as a subject for art.
His acclaimed biography Turner - A Life (1997) was followed by a series of major Turner exhibitions including Turner: The Late Sea Paintings, Turner’s Britain and Turner and Italy, as well as Volcano: from Turner to Warhol.
He is a Senior Research Fellow at the University of Birmingham, having been Alistair Horne Fellow at St Antony’s College, Oxford, and has broadcast on radio and television in the UK, Europe and Japan.
Anne-Marie Harrison was born and brought up in Paris but has subsequently lived in many different countries. Originally a linguist, she adapted to the many changes brought by the various relocations due to her British husband's job. She spent 16 years in Southeast Asia (Singapore, Thailand, Philippines, Indonesia) during which time she became involved with the local culture and languages which enabled her to experience many different fields of activity: she worked in Museums, ran a charity in the slum area of Bangkok, coordinated the teaching of English to Vietnamese refugees in Singapore and created a guiding programme in the Philippines.
Her work in Museums led to lecturing and a Master's in anthropology (EHESS, Sorbonne) on her return to France in 1995. She has been lecturing on ships since 1993 and is a regular speaker to cultural organizations throughout France. Now back in her own country, she has been elected deputy Mayor of her village in the Dordogne.
Denise Heywood is a lecturer, author, journalist and photographer. She worked in Cambodia as a journalist for three years, and has also worked in France and America.
Now based in London, she is a lecturer for the National Association of Decorative and Fine Art Societies (NADFAS), for the School of Oriental and African Studies (University of London) on their post-graduate Asian Art Course and for Madingley Hall (University of Cambridge). She has lectured all over Britain, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Southeast Asia and Europe for organisations such as The British Museum, The Art Fund, The Royal Society for Asian Affairs, Asia House, The National Trust, The Wallace Collection, Farnham Castle Centre for International Briefing, Asian Civilisations Museum Singapore and universities, museums, colleges, schools, art institutions, literary societies and travel organisations including the Royal Geographical Society.
She has written a book on the Buddhist temples of Laos, Ancient Luang Prabang, and her latest one is on Cambodian dance, Cambodian Dance Celebration of the Gods, with a foreword by Princess Buppha Devi, daughter of King Sihanouk.
She has led art tours to Southeast Asia and France for The Art Fund, The Royal Academy, The Scottish Royal Geographical Society, Asia House, Art Treasures Tours for Cox and Kings, Trustees of the Asian Art Museum San Francisco, Specialtours and British Museum Traveller.
Denise is a member of The Association of Southeast Asian Studies in the United Kingdom, Asia House, The Anglo-Indonesian Society, The Cambodian Society in the United Kingdom, La Societe des Amis de Champa and a Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society.
James Higginbotham, Archaeological Institute of America lecturer and host, is Associate Professor of Classical Archaeology at Bowdoin College in Brunswick, Maine, and holds a PhD in Classical Art and Archaeology from the University of Michigan. His scholarly interests focus on ancient Greek and Roman colonies, as well as the social history of the late Roman Republic. Jim was a regular member of the American School of Classical Studies in Athens and the recipient of several fellowships, including a Fulbright-Hays Research Grant to Italy and the Oscar Broneer Fellowship in Classical Archaeology at the American Academy in Rome.
In addition to teaching courses in Archaeology and the Classical Languages, Professor Higginbotham has excavated Classical sites in Greece, Israel, and Italy, where he has been Field Director of the joint University of Michigan-Bowdoin College excavations at Paestum since 1993. In his capacity as Curator for Ancient Art, Professor Higginbotham oversees the collection of antiquities housed in the Bowdoin College Museum of Art. He has lectured on many educational voyages in the Mediterranean and Black Seas since 2004, including "Sicily is the Key to Everything" aboard Aegean Odyssey in 2010.
His recent publications include Ars Antiqua: Treasures from the Ancient Mediterranean World at Bowdoin College (Brunswick, 2005), Piscinae: Artificial Fishponds in Roman Italy (Chapel Hill, 1997), and contributions in J.G. Pedley and M. Torelli’s The Sanctuary of Santa Venera at Paestum I (Rome, 1993).
Professor David Horner is one of Australia’s leading historians. As Professor of Australian Defence History at the internationally renowned Australian National University, he is considered Australia’s premier military historian with an international reputation for military history and strategic analysis.
David has researched different topics on military history relating to Malta, Tunisia and Spain, and he visited Morocco while researching a book on peacekeeping, published in 2014. David’s career began as an infantry officer in the Australian Regular Army. As a graduate of the Royal Military College Duntroon, he saw active service in Vietnam. After 25 years’ service in the Australian Regular Army, he became an academic. As an Army Reserve Colonel, he was the first Head of the Australian Army’s Land Warfare Studies Centre.
He has a Master’s degree from the University of New South Wales, and was awarded a Churchill Fellowship for military history study overseas. He received the Crawford Prize for excellence for his Doctorate in history and strategic studies at the Australian National University. He is the author/editor of 32 books and numerous articles on military history, strategy and defence. For eighteen years he was general editor of the Australian Army’s Military History Series and has written for prestigious American historical publications. He has been historical consultant for several television programmes.
David continues to write books as the Official Historian for Australian Peacekeeping, Humanitarian and Post-Cold War Operations, as well as for the Australian Security Intelligence Organisation. He is a Member of the Order of Australia for services to higher education in the area of Australian military history and heritage as a researcher, author and academic. He has experience lecturing on cruise ships from the Cunard, Holland America, P&O, Orion, Scenic, Seabourn, and Silversea lines.
After graduating in Latin and Ancient History at Exeter University and a career in BBC Television, Gillian became deeply involved in archaeology. As an author, historian, archaeologist, tour guide and NADFAS accredited public speaker of considerable experience and astonishing range, the Reithian mantra of ‘educate, inform and entertain’ remains central to her work; she specialises in lively, passionate and engaging history that connects with our lives today, enabling audiences to relate to archaeology and to find depth and colour in our modern lives through the past’s continuing influence on us today.
She has lectured to audiences including the national media, Classical Associations, art galleries, museums and literary festivals and her books include Visiting the Past: finding and understanding Britain’s archaeology and Roman Britain, while Latin All Around Us: Why the Romans still matter today is due out in 2014 (CUP) and she is currently working on her next book on the History of the Mediterranean. She also shares her love of ancient history by teaching Latin and Roman History to adults and by continuing to work with community archaeology projects. She embraces all media for spreading the word about archaeology and was most recently heard on Radio 4.
To read more about Gillian's work, visit her blog: www.muddyarchaeologist.co.uk
Philip Hurst is a very popular lecturer on world affairs, geopolitics and modern history, based in Spain. After several decades practising in the stratospheric regions of international law, his focus is now history, with a particular interest in modern states in transition, from colony to independence and from dictatorship to democracy, Imperial history, and the geopolitics of the First World War.
Formerly Deputy Director of The Australian Institute of International Affairs in Canberra, and Counsel at The World Bank in Washington DC, Philip is a distinguished Anglo-Australian international and constitutional lawyer. In the course of his diverse career he practised in New York, Washington DC, and London, having been an English solicitor, a member of the New York and California Bars, and a barrister and solicitor of the High Court of Australia.
Born in England and educated in Australia at the University of Sydney and the Australian National University, he completed post-graduate studies in law and international relations in the United States at the University of Virginia. Philip has worked in many of the world’s most remote and exotic countries, having visited well over 100 nations. He has a special expertise in India (after more than 40 visits), the Middle East (having made 16 visits to Iran since the Islamic Revolution), and several South American states as well as Southern Africa and South-East Asia.
Since withdrawing from legal practice, Philip devotes his time to lecturing at sea, historical research and writing. He is a Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society, London (F.R.G.S.), and now lives in Zahara de la Sierra, near Seville, Spain.
Glen Johnson is Professor Emeritus at Vassar College where he was the Shirley Ecker Boskey Professor of Political Science and International Relations. He joined the Vassar faculty in 1964 and served as Chair of the Political Science Department and founding Director of the International Studies Program. He was Acting President of Vassar College in 1997 and again in 2003.
Professor Johnson is the author and co-author of several books and a number of articles on US foreign policy, international human rights, India’s foreign policy and ex-untouchables. He has been a Fulbright scholar in India twice, first at Poona University and later for three years as Director of the American Studies Research Centre in Hyderabad from 1990-93. Early in his career he spent a research year at the Institute of Commonwealth Studies in London.
After retiring from Vassar, he spent two years at the American University in Cairo, Egypt as Distinguished Visiting Professor and Executive Director of the Center for American Studies and Research. For the last three years he has served as academic facilitator for the Fulbright-Nehru Seminar in Higher Education. In 2013 he was awarded the Eleanor Roosevelt Val-Kill Medal for his work in human rights and international understanding. With his wife, Sipra Johnson, Associate Professor Emerita of Anthropology at SUNY, New Paltz, he has led several educational tours of India for the Vassar College Alumnae/i Association and two for the National Geographic Society.
Professor Johnson did his undergraduate work at Georgetown College in Kentucky and earned his MA and Ph. D. in political science from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
Sipra Bose Johnson is Associate Professor Emerita of Anthropology at the State University of New York at New Paltz. She was a member of the New Paltz faculty for more than 30 years during which time she also served as Special Assistant to the Academic Vice-President for a five-year term. In 1973 she was a visiting lecturer in the residential college program at Yale University. She also spent a year doing research in London at the Institute for Race Relations and the Institute of Commonwealth Studies.
She is the author of several articles dealing with Indian women and with ex-untouchables in India. She has lectured widely in India and the United States on these subjects and others. Since retiring from New Paltz she has conducted courses and given guest lectures in the Center for Lifetime Studies, a non-credit program for senior citizens sponsored by Marist College in Poughkeepsie. She has also served as a resource person conducting workshops on coping with diversity for the LEADD program of the Interfaith Alliance in various venues throughout the country.
Born in India, she immigrated to the United States with her family when she was eleven years old. She received her high school education in Chapel Hill, NC and did her undergraduate work in international relations at the University of North Carolina where she was elected to Phi Beta Kappa and to the Order of the Valkyries, the highest honorary for women at the University. She earned her M.A. in anthropology at Columbia University. With her husband, Glen Johnson, Professor Emeritus of Political Science at Vassar College, she has led several educational tours of India for the Vassar College Alumnae/i Association and one for the National Geographic Society.
Eve MacDonald is a British-Canadian archaeologist and ancient historian who teaches and does research on the Ancient Mediterranean. Along with Greeks and Romans she has a particular interest in Carthage and all things Carthaginian. She will be publishing her first book, Hannibal: A Hellenistic Life, in November of 2014 (Yale University Press) and is currently working on an archaeological history of the site of Carthage (Bloomsbury). Eve has taught at the University of Edinburgh and is currently teaching at the University of Reading.
Eve’s love of the Mediterranean and the Ancient World extends east and west and she has excavated in Italy, France, Tunisia, Iran, and is currently working on a project in Georgia. Her broader interests lie in the way cultures have been remembered and how the ancient world is reflected in the modern. She has lectured and guided trips in the Middle East, Turkey, Aegean, Italy, Sicily and North Africa for over 15 years while she continues to research and teach. She loves sharing her enthusiasm for and knowledge of the material culture of the ancient Greeks, Romans and Carthaginians and believes it is only by getting out and viewing the lay of the land that we can perceive the ancient world most clearly.
Dr. Thomas Mannack is Reader in Classical Iconography at the University of Oxford where he teaches Greek and Roman Art and Architecture, and has taught Greek Art at King's College, London. He is an internationally known expert on Greek figure-decorated pottery and studied Classical Archaeology, Ancient History and European Archaeology in Kiel, Heidelberg and Oxford. He gained a first class doctorate at Kiel University. Dr Mannack has published books and papers in English and German on Greek pottery, Greek sculpture, and the reception of ancient art.
He has been invited to present papers by many universities and academies including New York, Berlin, Tours, Brussels, Munich, Copenhagen, Vienna, Basel and Zurich.
In his spare time, Dr. Mannack is passionate about flat German tin figures, which his wife Sigrid hates, and on which he has published two scholarly article, just to irk her. His daughters, Lilith and Fidelis, have rejected the refined and beautiful field of Classical Archaeology in favour of “Science”, but are occasionally willing to accompany him on cruises (and paint toy figures better than him).
Jaclyn Maxwell earned her Ph.D. in History and the Program in the Ancient World at Princeton University. She is currently Associate Professor in the Departments of History and Classics/World Religions at Ohio University (Athens, OH). Her research focuses on the social, intellectual and religious changes during the Late Roman Empire (~300-500 CE), with a particular interest in areas that are today Turkey and Syria.
Her first book, Christianization and Communication in Late Antiquity: John Chrysostom and his Congregation in Antioch(Cambridge University Press in 2006) examined the social context of Christian preaching in the Roman Empire. Her teaching ranges from ancient Greece and Rome to thematic courses on World Religions that include contemporary events and problems. On our cruise in April 2015 she will be speaking on: 'The Shared History of the 'East' and 'West', and 'Pagans, Jews and Christians in the Ancient World'.
Peter Medhurst’s work as singer, pianist and lecturer-recitalist has taken him all over the world, and in the last few years he has toured New Zealand, Australia, South Africa and made frequent tours in Europe, giving performances in Berlin, Hamburg, Vienna, Salzburg, Brussels, Antwerp, Amsterdam, Paris and Spain.
Closer to home, he has presented events at the Barbican, St John’s Smith Square, and the Royal Festival Hall on Beethoven String Quartets, Mozart Operas, Vermeer’s Music Lesson, The Twelve Days of Christmas, The Golden Age of Vienna, and 18th Century Venetian Art and Music.
He has also directed presentations at the Wallace Collection, the National Gallery, the National Portrait Gallery and the V&A, linking the visual arts with the world of 17th & 18th century music making.
He is a familiar face to audiences of music societies, regional theatres and British festivals as well as to those of arts based organisations such as The Art Fund, The National Trust. He is also a NADFAS (National Association of Decorative & Fine Arts Societies) accredited lecturer.
Over the years Peter Medhurst has lectured for the universities of Kent and Surrey, directed a wide range of choirs, vocal ensembles and instrumental groups, and adjudicated and given masterclasses for the British Federation of Music Festivals.
Peter is director of The Classical Music Company, and part of the triumvirate – with television director David Coleman and television producer Sheridan Dudley – that has formed Blue Thread Medhurst Productions. The organisation promotes special musical events, creates films about the arts, produces recordings and organises specialist music tours to unusual locations both at home and abroad.
Read more on http://petermedhurst.com ›
Matthew Nicholls read Classics at Oxford University (St John's College) before staying on for a doctorate and a research fellowship at The Queen's College. He is now an associate professor of Classics at the University of Reading, specialising in Roman history. He is particularly interested in the way buildings and cities functioned in the ancient world, and how architecture shaped people's understanding of their identity and environment.
Matthew enjoys bringing his enthusiasm for ancient places to a wide audience. He frequently gives public lectures and has worked on BBC TV and radio programmes about the city of Rome, empresses, Roman Scotland, ancient libraries, and much else. His short '30-Second' guide to the Romans will be published by Barnes and Noble in August 2014, and he is also working on a book on ancient Rome for Cambridge University Press. This will be illustrated with pictures from the enormous, detailed digital model of the city that he has built over the last five years, which recently won him the Guardian's prestigious national Higher Education Award for Teaching Excellence.
His other research includes work on books and libraries in the ancient world, particularly the Roman empire. He enjoys travelling to the Mediterranean to visit ancient sites at least once or twice a year, knowing from his own experience that seeing ancient sites first hand adds enormously to our understanding of history.
Following a period as assistant to sculptor John Chamberlain, Dr. Richard Patterson moved from California to the United Kingdom in 1969. He studied architecture at Cambridge University, the Architectural Association in London and Princeton University and has been a registered architect since 1979. As a practicing architect, he has been responsible for various commercial, residential and urban projects in the City of London, and in London Docklands. He set up his own practice in 1990 for works to London properties for the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, including the embassy and ambassador’s residence. His PhD was awarded for his research in architectural semiology, which considered the iconography of European gardens from the 16th and 17th centuries, including the Hortus Palatinus at Heidelberg.
His subsequent interests have covered a variety of literary and rhetorical sources for architectural concepts and principles. His keynote presentation to the Royal Academy Forum in London, the ‘Metamorphosis of Tragedy’, was latterly published as the Tragic in Architecture . Most recently, he has acted as Rapporteur for Charles Jencks’s RA forum on ‘Radical Postmodernism’. His present interests continue to focus on the analysis of formal systems in architecture. His most recent publication, in the anthology Architecture and Justice, he was concerned with the origin of the concept of neutral space.
He has lectured for many years on professional architectural courses in the UK, retiring as Deputy Head at the University of Brighton’s School of Architecture. He has worked as consultant to the FCO in preparing and running seminars on land law, planning and development for Riga City Council in Latvia, and presently advises on the prescription and validation of professional qualifications in architecture in the European Community, including periods in Krakow and Dublin. On board Aegean Odyssey he will be lecturing among other topics on the comparison between European and Sub-continent principles of architectural composition. He will be accompanied by his wife Caroline a Social Anthropology graduate from Rutgers University and The School of Oriental and African Studies, where her primary interest lay in the shadow puppetry of Java and Bali. She is currently a practicing abstract artist.
Jonathan Phillips is Professor of Crusading History at Royal Holloway, University of London. He is the author of numerous books on the crusades, most recently Holy Warriors: A Modern History of the Crusades which was published by the Bodley Head to very positive reviews and selected as a ‘History Book of 2009’ by The Sunday Telegraph.
Phillips’ previous monograph The Second Crusade: Extending the Frontiers of Christendom, was strongly praised by reviewers in Times Literary Supplement, The Guardian, The Sunday Telegraph, and his earlier The Fourth Crusade and the Sack of Constantinople was shortlisted for the Hessell-Tiltman Literary Prize 2005.
His current research interests centre upon the involvement of the Italian cities of Pisa, Genoa and Venice in the crusades. This will lead to a monograph, associated articles, as well as an introduction to a translation of the texts of Caffaro of Genoa (with Martin Hall).
Over the last eighteen months Phillips has given invited conference papers and lectures in Damascus, Istanbul, Malta, St Louis USA, Cardiff, Denmark. Professor Phillips has appeared in numerous television and radio programmes, most recently on Channel 4's 'Back from the Dead: Crusaders' and BBC Radio 4’s 'Start the Week' to discuss Holy Warriors. He is currently filming a major 6 part series 'The Road from Christ to Constantine' which he will present. He was the consultant and an interviewee in Channel 4’s programme on the Crusades in 2009, in Boris Johnson’s BBC2 programme 'After Rome' (2008), and the consultant and lead presenter for the History Channel’s 'Crescent and the Cross' (2005). A co-editor of the academic journal, Crusades, he also co-chairs the Crusades and Eastern Mediterranean seminar at the Institute of Historical Research, London.
Photo © Erik van den Boom
David Price-Williams has a first degree from the University of Wales in Ancient Near Eastern languages (Aramaic, Hebrew, Arabic etc.), with a subsidiary in Attic and Koine Greek. His post-graduate work and his doctorate, from the University of London, is in Near Eastern archaeology. His first overseas archaeological field work in the eastern Mediterranean was in 1969 as a field surveyor at the classical site of Knidos in Turkey. He then worked for the Smithsonian Institution as an archaeological field surveyor on excavations in the Near East before directing his own field research in the same area through the early 1970’s.
David has spent many years working in the countries of Africa south of the Zambesi. From 1976 to 1989 he was the director of a multi-disciplinary team of up to twenty scientists from several universities researching the effects of climatic change on human evolution in Africa. He was based in Swaziland, during which time he also oversaw the building of the Swaziland National Museum and where he eventually became Director of Antiquities.
David has been associated with the eastern Mediterranean – Greece, Turkey, Jordan and the Near East for more than 40 years. He is deeply involved with all aspects of Near Eastern culture, history and archaeology.
David has just retired after thirty seven years lecturing on the Archaeology of Western Asia (Eastern Mediterranean) at the Institute of Archaeology for the University of London Extra Mural Department. He is the author and co-author of numerous academic papers on the area. David has designed and lectured on many tours to Greece, Turkey and the Near East and is very familiar with the archaeological sites in the area. David is a Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society, an elected member of the Royal Society for Asian Affairs, and a life member of the Southern African Quaternary Research Association. He speaks Turkish and reads Classical Greek.
Joshua Pugh Ginn is an ancient historian specialising in the Roman Republican period and its perception in later historiography. He is currently in his final year of doctoral research at Selwyn College, Cambridge, looking at the presentation of earlier Roman history in the 'Parallel Lives' of Plutarch. He focuses on questions of Graeco-Roman cultural interaction and the role of moralising and narrative in the telling of history, and also teaches on topics such as the Punic Wars.
He has travelled extensively around the ancient sites of the Mediterranean in the past, including a spell working on board the Aegean Odyssey during a gap year. Since 2014 he has also been involved in co-ordinating the Classics summer school run by the Sutton Trust, an educational charity. Joshua recently captained Selwyn College, Cambridge, on University Challenge, a well known British TV quiz show.
Ernie Rea is a celebrated broadcaster who specialises on the history of religions and the way that faith impacts on the contemporary world. His regular radio programme, Beyond Belief, was awarded the prestigious Sony Gold Award for the best Speech Programme on British Radio. He worked for the BBC for 22 years in a variety of production and editorial roles. From 1989 -2001 he was Head of Religious Broadcasting for the BBC responsible for all their television and radio programmes nationally and locally. During this time, he spent much time in the United States, brokering co-production television deals with leading American broadcasters. He was closely involved in a variety of key national events, including the Funeral Service for Diana, Princess of Wales. He is in wide demand as a speaker at a wide variety of events, including international inter faith conferences, literary festivals, and academic symposia.
In 1997 he was personally awarded the Gold Medal of the International Council for Christians and Jews for his contribution to Inter Faith understanding. He has First Class Degrees in Theology and in History and Politics which helped fuel his passion for the study of world religions and the way in which they impact on the ancient and modern worlds. He was one time Visiting Lecturer at the Department of Education at Manchester University.
Anthony Reid is a Professor of Southeast Asian history, trained in history in Wellington (New Zealand) and Cambridge. He is today again based as emeritus professor at the Australian National University in Canberra, where he also served most of his academic career. That career began and ended in Southeast Asia, however, first as a lecturer in Kuala Lumpur’s then-young University of Malaya, and finally as founding Director of the Asia Research Institute at the National University of Singapore. He has also taught more briefly at UCLA, Yale, Hawaii, and at two Indonesian universities. He is a fellow of the British Academy and the Australian Academy of Humanities, and was awarded the Academic Prize of the Fukuoka Asian Culture Prizes in 2002, notably for his much-translated (4 Asian languages) Southeast Asia in the Age of Commerce (2 vols. 1988-93).
He has authored 9 books (and countless articles) on Southeast Asian history, and edited another 30. His work ranges across the last 600 years and debates such issues as revolution, nationalism, slavery, freedom, the Chinese diaspora, Islam, names, separatism, and some specifics of Sumatra and Sulawesi.
Joyce grew up in Brazil and Mexico, then moved to the States and obtained a PhD in Medieval History from Rutgers University in New Jersey. She was endlessly curious about what shapes people’s actions, and thus focused on the history of religion and aspects of social history, like the history of sexuality. Joyce was an award-winning teacher at the University of Wisconsin – Green Bay. When she retired, she could indulge her twin passions of writing books and giving lectures all over the world.
Joyce is an author of more than ten books, including a best-selling western civilization textbook, "The West in the World", and other non-fiction books on history and religion, including "The Beast Within: Animals in the Middle Ages", "The Blood of Martyrs: Unintended Consequences of Ancient Violence" and the award-winning "Perpetua’s Passion: Death and Memory of a Young Roman Woman". She is currently writing a biography of the Roman Empress Galla Placidia, weaving theology and daily life into the narrative.
Joyce has appeared on Public Television, Public Radio, and has circumnavigated the world twice teaching on Semester at Sea’s ship, the MV Explorer. She has also lectured on many commercial cruise ships.
Since 2006 she has sailed around the world teaching on Semester at Sea through the University of Virginia, and has spent a good deal of time in Southeast Asia teaching history and cross-cultural religion. Through these educational travels, she has had the opportunity to observe the many changes that have taken place in these countries through the rapid pace of globalization. She has also noted the deep continuities in religion and culture as the various strains of Islam and Buddhism are expressed throughout the region. She will bring these insights – as well as her personal experiences -- to her lectures.
Simone Schofield enjoys every form of needlecraft and has specialised in teaching patchwork and quilting to all ages. She was born in Cape Town in 1955 and is married to Andrew who supports her addictive hobby. Their children, Janet and Adrian, live in London and Brisbane. Simone co-owns a patchwork shop called STITCH 'N STUFF in a suburb of Cape Town where she gives her regular classes. She opened the shop in 1994 and after 2 years of intensive studying, she was asked to teach basic lessons to beginners.
Since then Simone has branched out into embroidery, bead making and quick, fun things to sew which give the maker instant pleasure. Her patchwork classes now include beginners, intermediate and advanced students and the techniques will satisfy the traditional and innovative quilter.
Simone has been teaching on cruise ships for the past 5 years and she makes the classes revolve around the area past which the ship is sailing ie. Herero dolls from Namibia, naive embroidery from East Africa, Aboriginal patchwork from Australia ( using traditional fabric) and many others. She prepares a variety of kits for the cruising students and supplies everything needed to finish the article.
Simone has been very involved with the GOOD HOPE QUILTERS GUILD for 20 years and was the President of the guild from 2009 to 2012. She co-organised a national quilt festival in 2011 and has also taught and lectured at many national quilt festivals in South Africa. She has also given classes in the UK, Mauritius, several East African countries as well as Australia. Getting together with other passengers and making something unusual is such fun and Simone thoroughly enjoys seeing her students marvel at what they have made.
Andrew Schofield is an ecologist and was born in Farnborough in 1956. He has lived in Nigeria, Kenya and Tanzania and now lives in Cape Town, South Africa.
Conservation has been the theme of his life with influences by many wonderful people that he has met over the years, starting with his God father who was the National Parks field officer for Nigeria and who took him as a young boy to see the herds of Elephants in the bush to the turtles nesting on the beaches.
Andrew has created wildlife reserves in areas that have not had game on them for hundreds of years. He has collected and translocated species like Elephant, Rhino, Cheetah and Lion and successfully habituated them to the new reserves.
Andrew was the first person in the world to release White Lions back into the wild. This was a long and interesting project which had many successes and glorious failures, but now there are free roaming white lions in Africa due to his and his team's perseverance.
These conservation projects have culminated in the form of a book, "White Lion back to the wild" which tells the story of how the White Lions were returned to their natural habitat and how game reserves are created.
Andrew still does conservation work throughout Africa and the Indian Ocean Islands and is a specialist nature guide for people who wish to explore the Fauna and Flora of Africa. A passion for wildlife and photography has taken him all over the world, from the freezing Antarctic to the scorching Sahara, over the years he has been extremely privileged to do research and work in some rather far off places. He is married to Simone and they have two adult children Janet and Adrian.
General Stevens completed his military service as the Chief of Personnel of the Australian Army. During his career he served in the Vietnam War and completed appointments as the Commanding Officer of the School of Artillery and Director of Studies of the Australian Command and Staff College. He is a graduate of the Canadian National Defence College.
After leaving the Army General Stevens was appointed to the Repatriation Commission, which administers veterans’ entitlements and oversees Australia’s official commemoration program. He then became the Director of the Office of Australian War Graves. His responsibilities in these positions included the planning and conduct of nationally-televised ceremonies from Turkey and France. He is currently a member of the Board of Directors (Council) of the Australian War Memorial. His interest in history formed the basis of his tertiary studies and played a significant part in these recent appointments.
In addition to his military and public service roles, Paul has also been a member of Australia’s Administrative Review Council, and contributed in an honorary capacity as a Company Director and member of a University Ethics Committee. His interests include reading, learning German, sport, and the three generations of his family.
A writer who has spent much of his career as a foreign correspondent covering the transformation of former Communist countries, Adam is now a fellow at the Institute for Quantitative Social Science at Harvard University. He first travelled to Eastern Europe and the Balkans in the final years of Communism and returned often after the fall of the Berlin Wall. He lived in Moscow and reported for five years in the 1990s starting immediately after the collapse of the Soviet Union.
He has interviewed Mikhail Gorbachev, Boris Yeltsin, Alexandr Solzhenitsyn, legendary cosmonauts and World War Two heroes, billionaires, criminals and ordinary people who flourished and struggled during the transformation of the former Soviet Union. Adam served as Reuters bureau chief for Reuters in the Balkans until 2011. Other past postings include San Francisco, where he was bureau chief, Berlin and Washington D.C. He was part of the Reuters team cited in 2012 as a Pulitzer finalist in international reporting.
Adam first reported from Southeast Asia in the mid-1980s. In 1989, he covered Cambodia ahead of the withdrawal of Vietnamese troops at a time few foreigners could visit the country. He remains passionate about Indochina and, along with his family, volunteered in a school for underprivileged children in Siem Reap, Cambodia, in the summers of 2012 and 2013.
He has appeared on the BBC and National Public Radio, and has written for Forbes, Worth and other magazines. At Harvard, Adam has recently completed "What Stays in Vegas: The World of Personal Data - Lifeblood of Big Business - and the End of Privacy as We Know It."
Dr Richard Thomas has had a career in International Development working as an academic, a consultant and as a long term (1991-2010) staff member of the UK's Department for International Development. He has travelled widely in his career, during which he has conducted research into the impact of various empires on countries and regions around the world. Whilst on board Aegean Odyssey, Dr Thomas will hold talks covering topics including the Emperor Hadrian, the Crusades, Mediterranean piracy, and the decline of Sicily as a major power.
Dr Thomas has also worked in Africa, Asia, the Middle East and South and Southeast Asia. During the 1980s he worked extensively in India and Nepal on projects ranging from local government reform to a major Ghurkha resettlement scheme in the eastern hills of Nepal. He was later responsible for a series of programmes in the ASEAN region which involved extensive travel to Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia and Thailand and ran training programmes in Singapore, Malacca, Kuching and Port Klang.
Gaynor is a freelance radio and television producer and consultant and trainer on presentation and the press and broadcast media.
She spent 25 years working for the BBC as a Radio 4 presenter and as an award-winning producer of television and radio programmes. She was Head of BBC Radio Wales and was the first Managing Editor of BBC Radio 5, which is a national news and sports channel.
While at the BBC Gaynor was sent to South Africa post-apartheid to train black presenters for SABC. Nowadays she works as a media consultant with Charities, and spends her spare time sailing the high seas or at home with her husband Ernie and beautiful dog, Bertie.
Whilst on board Aegean Odyssey, Gaynor will be running a book club for passengers wishing to learn more about the fascinating sites visited.
Rachel Ward was a Curator (Middle Eastern section) at the British Museum 1983-2000 and Director/Vice President of the Royal Asiatic Society 2002-2008. In 1988 she was co-curator/author of Süleyman the Magnificent at the British Museum, the first major exhibition of Ottoman art in Europe. Other publications include Islamic Metalwork, London, 1993; Gilded and Enamelled Glass from the Middle East (editor), London, 1998; Court and Craft, a Masterpiece from Northern Iraq (an exhibition at the Courtauld Gallery), London, 2014.
She is currently working on a Catalogue of the Arab and Turkish Metalwork in the British Museum, on glass excavated on the citadel in Aleppo, Syria, and on an exhibition and catalogue of Islamic metalwork in the Georgian National Museum in Tbilisi. Rachel lectures for universities, museums and other groups on the art and culture of the Islamic world. She is a NADFAS (National Association of Decorative & Fine Arts Societies) accredited lecturer.
Candace Weddle is an Assistant Professor of Art History at Anderson University, South Carolina. She holds a Ph.D. in classical Art History from the University of Southern California in Los Angeles, an M.A. in Medieval Art History from Tulane University in New Orleans, and a B.A. in Classics from Baylor University in her home state of Texas.
As an archaeologist, she has joined teams at several sites including Classe (the Roman Imperial fleet harbor outside of Ravenna), a Neolithic site in the Transylvanian region of Romania, and Princeton University’s Euchaita/Avkat project in north-central Turkey. She was also a member of the Austrian Archaeological Institute’s team excavating the “Temple of Domitian” in the well-known city of Ephesus in Turkey. The recipient of a Fulbright grant and a residential fellowship from the Koç University Research Center for Anatolian Civilizations, she spent a year in Istanbul conducting research and falling in love with that spectacular city.
She has traveled widely in Europe and the Middle East and has spoken on a variety of ancient and medieval topics at conferences and as an invited lecturer at universities in the U.S., the U.K., Turkey, and Indonesia. Her current primary research interest is the sensory experience of ancient life, especially the ways in which we can use archaeological and literary evidence to better understand the sights, sounds, smells, tastes and other sensations experienced by worshipers during ancient religious ceremonies.
Brian is the Emeritus Professor of Geology at the University of Aberdeen, Scotland and holds professorial positions in the Universities of Manchester and Bristol, UK, and Cork and Dublin in Ireland. He has also held university teaching positions in Canada and the USA. He is a Fellow of the Geological Society of London and a Member of the Energy Institute, and has published over 100 papers and several books. He has made TV appearances in the UK, USA and Far East and presented Radio programmes for the BBC.
Brian gained his PhD in sedimentary geology from the University of Wales far too many years ago to admit to, and in 2004 was awarded a D.Sc. degree in recognition of his global contribution to sedimentary research. He is a consultant to the Oil Industry and several small geological companies, and has lectured on Voyages to Antiquity cruises since 2011. His studies have taken him to Australia, SE Asia, Middle East, Europe and North America which has given him the opportunity to share his enthusiasm for rocks and earth processes with adult education classes, industry personnel and students alike.
In addition to being passionate about Geology, Brian is an ardent Rugby enthusiast [he's Welsh of course !!] and follower of American Jazz.